Debian is one of the oldest (project started in 1993) and most stable operating systems in the Linux family. It is considered to be the universal operating system. Like many other Linux distributions, it comprises free and open-source software developed by the community-supported project. Stability and over 59000 packages available for download and install, make Debian one of my favorite Linux distros. Debian has distributed freely over the internet.
Download Debian Linux
Before we download the Debian OS image, we may need to consider the following points:
- The 32-bit processor or 64-bit processor: Debian is available to download for both 32-bit and 64-bit It is very important to know what processor type on your PC/Laptop/Server is available (32-bit or 64-bit). A 64-bit Debian Linux image may not work on a 32-bit processor system. Today, most of the PCs/Laptops come with a 64-bit processor. It is recommended to use a 64-bit Debian image if possible. Click here to check whether your computer/server is 32-bit or 64-bit.
If you are using Windows 10 like me, you may want to see system settings to find your system processor type
- Stable / Testing / Unstable Distribution:
There are three distributions of Debian. Stable, Testing, and Unstable.
Stable: The whole point of Debian from day one was “STABLE”. This is the production release of Debian which means that it is the most stable distribution of Debian. Click Here to download Debian “Stable”
Testing: The testing distribution contains bundles/packages that have not been acknowledged into a STABLE release yet. The main benefit of using this “Testing” Distribution is that you may get more recent version of the software. It is not suggested to use this distribution in production. Click Here to download Debian “Testing”
Unstable: This is the most updated but as the word shows, it could be unstable. Generally, this distribution is used by developers who are actively developing Debian.
In this step-by-step tutorial, I will use 64-bit Debian “STABLE”. Click Here to download it from Debian official website.
Click on amd64, to download the official netinst image for the “stable” release. Netinst image is the smallest possible image that contains a small set of packages. This CD includes only the minimum tools required to continue downloading and retrieve the remaining packages on the Internet.
Install Debian Linux
Creating Virtual Machine
Click on NEW to create a new virtual machine.
Provide Name, select Type, and Version.
Select RAM. The hardware requirement is not 4GB. However, I am reserving 4 GB for my virtual machine.
Select Create a virtual hard disk now and click Create.
Select VMDK (Virtual Machine Disk) and click Next.
Select Dynamically allocated and click Next.
Select 20 GB for hard disk and click Create.
The Virtual Machine is now created, and we can click on Start to start installation.
Click on the Folder Icon to add and select startup-disk.
Select start-up disk and Click Start.
Debian Linux Installation Process
Select Graphical Install from the menu and press Enter.
You can choose any language from the available languages to continue with the installation. This selected language will also be the default language for the installed system. Select English Language and click Continue.
Country selection is important for time-zone settings. Select the Country where you live and click Continue.
Configure the Keyboard by selecting the keymap to use. Select American English and click Continue.
Configure Network in Debian Linux
The hostname is important as it identifies your system to the network. Configure the Hostname (for example Debian) and click Continue.
After the hostname, you should configure the domain name. Since I am using this Debian VM in my test network, I can configure any domain-name for the time being. However, in production, you may want to consult the system administrator.
So, this virtual machine can be identified over the network by its Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) which is
Set up Users and Passwords
The root is the most critical and important user on any Linux system. You need to set a password for ‘root’. This is a system administrative account and the password for this account should not be easy to guess.
If you don’t configure the ‘root’ password here, the root account will be disabled and the system’s initial user account will be given the power to become root using thesudo command.
All non-administrative tasks should be completed by a non-root user account. This user can also give root privileges to perform certain tasks.
Type Full Name for the new user and click Continue.
Select the username for the created non-root user. This username should start with a lower-case letter, which can be followed by any combinations of numbers and more lower-case letters. Type username and click Continue.
A good password will always contain a mixture of letters, numbers, and punctuation and should be changed at regular intervals. Choose a password for the new user you just created and click Continue.
Select Your Time Zone and click Continue.
Let it load and configure components.
Partition Disks in Debian
There are different standard schemes to partition disks. If you are an expert and know-how to deal with disk partitions, then select Manual. Otherwise, for the sake of simplicity, select Guided – use the entire disk.
Selecting Guided – use entire disk is recommended for new users as it will automatically create required partitions for you.
Select Guided – use entire disk and click Continue.
There is currently only 1 hard disk installed in our VM. Therefore, select available Disk to Partition and click Continue.
Select the partitioning scheme and use the first option “recommended for new users”. Click to continue to move forward.
As you may see that, on our selected hard disk, 2 paritions / ndswaphave already been created. Now, select Finish partitioning and write changes to disk and click Continue.
Write the changes to disk, select Yes and click continue to format the two partitions as ext4 and swap.
Let the Debian Install the base system.
Currently, we do not have any other CD or DVD to scan. You may select No and click Continue.
Configure Package Manager in Debian
Now, you have to select the country where you want to fetch packages from. Select Debian archive mirror country and select Continue.
Now you may select the Debian archive mirror. Select deb.debian.org and select Continue.
Right now, we have no proxy configured so you may leave it empty and click Continue.
Let the Debian configure package manager.
This popularity contest is optional. Select Yes if you want to participate. Otherwise, select No and click Continue.
By default, Debian comes with the GNOME desktop environment. If you need to install any other environment in addition to it, please select it and click on Continue.
As a personal choice, I also select the MATE desktop environment. If you install two desktop environments, you can choose between them while logging in to the system.
Install the GRUB boot load on the Master Boot Record (MBR). Select Yes and click Continue.
Select the existing hard disk to install GRUB as shown in the picture and click Continue.
Installation is completed. You may now click Continue.
The machine will boot, and you may use your created username/password to enter into Debian Linux.
The Bottom Line
- Debian Linux is freely available to download and install. In addition, VirtualBox is also freely available.
- It is recommended to use the Debian “STABLE” release of the distribution in production.
- Most of the system have 64-bit processors, therefore, you should download and use 64-bit Debian Linux.